Cane-likeHaving upright slender stems that may be jointed and with smooth bark.
Vase-shapeWhen a plant has upright spreading branches with an outline shape of a vase.
This shrub has multiple woody cane-like, reddish-brown arching stems that form an open vase habit that becomes rounded with age. It has dark glossy green leaves that turn bronze in autumn and clusters of white funnel-shaped flower appear during summer.
Abelia x grandiflora resulted from a cross between A. chinensis and A. uniflora. It prefers well drained, moist loams that are tending acid with a pH 5.5 to 8.0 and grows in an open to expose sunny position and is drought and frost tolerant.
The Glossy Abelia is grown for its dense bushy habit and its flowers. It is planted in parks and gardens along borders for screening or trimmed to form a hedge. It is also used in patio pots and planter boxes or on roof gardens. This commonly cultivated plant is suitable for coastal or mountainous regions and may be grown as a perennial in cold climates (zone 6) and establishes in 1 to 2 years. It has a low water requirement once established (Scale: 1-drop from 3), responding to mulch and an occasional deep watering during dry periods, particularly for young plants
UK hardiness zone H4
Climate zones 4-24 H1, H2
Abelia (a-BEE-lee-uh) x grandiflora (gran-dih-FLOR-uh)
"Abelia": after British botanist Dr Clarke Abel; "grandiflora": large flowers.
This evergreen shrub grows up to 1.5m (5ft) forming a compact habit with reddish brown canes and copper coloured shoots. The leaves are mottled with yellow margins and the tube-shaped white flowers appear prolifically from summer to autumn. It is used in border planting for screening and is suitable for coastal and mountain regions. It grows in a full sun to semi-shaded position on most well drained moderately fertile soils and is frost and drought tolerant. Once established it has a medium water requirement, (Scale: 2-drops from 3) and responds to mulching with an occasional deep watering during dry periods.
The following cultivars may only be available in the USA or UK
This plant grows to 1.2m (4ft) tall and has pinkish white flowers; otherwise, it is the same as the species.
This shrub has a dense compact habit and grows to 600mm (2ft) tall. It produces cream-margined leaves that turn rose colour in winter tolerating full sun to semi shade. It is used for mass planting or as a ground cover.
This shrub forms a low dense habit to 770mm (2½ft) tall. From summer to autumn lavender pink flower are continually produced and the dark green leaves turn rich reddish purple in autumn and in cold climates the leaves persist on the plant until winter.
This plant is a cross between Abelia x grandiflora and Abelia schumannii. This small semi evergreen shrub has glossy green leaves that are bronze when young and produces profuse lilac pink flowers from summer to autumn.
This shrub produces foliage with a golden yellow margin and white flowers.
This shrub forms a dense upright-mounded habit with dark green lustrous leaves.
This plant has a compact dense habit to 1m (3ft) tall and 1m (3ft) wide with glossy dark green leaves and produces prolific white flowers. The leaves persist on the plant throughout winter.
This shrub is low growing and spreading to 600mm (2ft) tall and the foliage turns bronze purple during winter or maybe deciduous in certain climates.
This plant produces pink flowers and the leaves persist throughout winter, otherwise it is the same as the species.
This shrub has a dense compact habit to 1m (3½ft) high and up to 1.2m (4ft) wide. In winter, the leaves turn purple green. It is a good plant for mass planting in an open and sunny position.
This vigorous shrub grows to 1m (3ft) and produces leaves with a golden margin.
This family consists of many ornamental shrubs and vines.
These plants are normally found in the Northern Hemisphere from tropical to temperate areas.
The plants in this family are shrubs up to 4 m (13 ft) or woody climbers, perennial herbs and rarely a small tree.
The leaves with stipules are simple and oppositely arranged. They are sometimes lobed with entire to serrated margins.
The flowers appear in terminal or axillary cyme, panicle or a spike-like inflorescence that may have colourful bracts. There are 5-or sometimes 2-4 free sepals that are linear to obovate and may be persistent. The 5-lobed regular corolla is tubular to funnelform and is often 2-lipped.
There are 4 or 5 stamens with filaments that are fused to the corolla tube and the anthers are protruding.
The ovary is inferior and has two to five chambers with 1 to many ovules.
The red to black fruit is a dry or fleshy indehiscent capsule, berry or fleshy drupe with 1-to many seeds that have endosperm.
Many species are grown for ornamental purposes and are hardy.
This plant tolerates between USDA zones 7a to 10a and grows to 3 m (10 ft)
Fahrenheit 5º to 35º F
These temperatures represent the lowest average
Celsius -15º to 1.6ºC
All photographs and data are covered by copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, reference or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any means with out written permission. All inquiries should be addressed to plantfile.com attention Peter Kirkland.
SimpleThe leaf that is not divided.
OvateThe leaf that is broadest at the base tapering towards the apex.
OppositeLeaves that are arranged opposite to each other.
CrenateA leaf margin that is saw toothed with the teeth being rounded.
The glossy dark green ovate leaves have a crenate to serrate margin and the colour becomes reddish during winter. It has an acute apex and a cuneate base. The short petiole is up to 4 mm (1/8 in) long and the underside is glabrous, pale green. The small ovoid buds have 2-loose scales.
In cold regions this plant is semi evergreen to deciduous shedding its leaves in early winter and re-sprouting in early spring.
FunnelformA flower where the petals form a funnel shape.
PanicleBranched with large loose clusters.
The funnelform flower is coloured white, flushed with mauve pink and are up to 25 mm (1 in) long. They are arranged in an axillary cyme or terminal panicle in groups of 3 to 5, appearing on the new growth throughout summer. The 5 red tinged sepals are persistent on the plant from late summer to midwinter.
BerryA fleshy succulent indehiscent fruit, contains one or more seeds"
The Glossy Abelia is grown for its flowers and its bushy habit. It is used as a hedge or screen plant along mixed shrub borders or used for colour contrast. It may be grown in tubs or planter boxes and is mildly salt tolerant. It establishes in 1 to 2 years attracting butterflies and the foliage is used in floral arrangements.
Abelia x grandiflora
As a hedge plant out at 450 mm (18 in) apart and train to the appropriate hight, between 1 to 2m (3 to 6ft) and lightly trim regularly during the growing period. As a shrub cut back hard after flowering to a node and this will encourage new growth and flowering. Unpruned shrubs become leggy and woody.
The plant also responds to extra water during dry summers, and the addition of complete fertiliser during spring results in faster growth.
Take soft tip cuttings from spring to summer and semi hardwood cuttings from summer to autumn.
Take hardwood cuttings during winter.
This shrub transplants easily, wrap the root ball and keep moist.
Asexual Propagation (Cuttings) (General)
Propagation from cuttings is possible because every cell of a plant containers the genetic information to create an entire plant.
1. Reproduction occurs through the formation of adventitious roots and shoots.
2. The uniting of vegetative parts with budding and grafting.
3. Taking stem cuttings and layering is possible due to the development of adventitious roots
4. Root cuttings can form new shoots and it is possible to join roots and shoots to form a new plant.
5. A new plant may be formed from a single cell in an aseptic culture system, (cloning).
It is important to propagate vegetatively as this form of cloning retains the unique characteristics of the cultivars or where particular aspects of a plant may be lost if propagated by seed.
Equipment Required for Taking Cuttings
1. A sharp knife that is not too large or a razor mounted in a handle.
2. Good pair of sharp secateurs that is clean.
3. A dibbler to make a hole in the media and allow the cutting to be placed in.
4. Propagation structures that are either a timber frame with glass or polyethylene cover or a glasshouse.
The object of the structure is to create an environment where the temperature and humidity can be controlled. This can be achieved with a simple cover over a pot with a wire frame and plastic.
This stops the draughts and maintains humidity.
5. A hotbed is a useful item as many plants root more quickly if the media is slightly warmer.
Bottom heat is obtained from thermostatically controlled heating cables that are running under the media.
6. Misting systems are of great benefit to cuttings as the regulated fogging with water inhibits the cuttings from drying out and as a result the cuttings may be grown in full sun.
This results in faster root development and less subject to diseases by fungi and bacteria.
7. Rooting mediums
The rooting medium must be well drained, sand may be used as long as it is thoroughly washed and leached of all salts. It is very well drained and it is excellent for cutting that root up quickly. Equal parts of sand and peat moss have good results for cuttings, which are left for a period of time to allow the roots to form.
Vermiculite and perlite are also used as a well-drained rooting media but has the same disadvantage as sand having no nutrients. The cuttings must be potted up as soon as the roots developed, or a light application of liquid fertiliser can be applied.
Types of Cuttings
These are the main types of cuttings.
1. Softwood cuttings.
These cuttings are taken from young growth on side shoots and tip growth.
2. Semi hardwood cuttings.
These cuttings are taken from wood that is firmer and semi ripe usually during mid summer.
3. Hardwood cuttings.
These cuttings are taken from mature wood normally towards the end of the season.
4. Root Cuttings
Cut sections of roots to obtain new plants during late winter to early spring.
5. Leaf Cuttings
Cut the leaf blade in order to obtain new plants during the growing period of the plant.
When taking hardwood cuttings remove the leaves and in semi hardwood reduce the number of leaves by half. Cut the wood straight across just below a node or joint. Hardwood cuttings are normally between 100 to 760 mm long and may have either a heel of the older wood attached to the base, or a short section of the older wood at the base. These cuttings are prepared during the dormant season from late autumn to early spring and are made up from previous season's growth.
This type of cutting is used for woody deciduous plants such as Crepe Myrtle, Rose rootstocks and some fruit trees.
The cuttings should be healthy wood with ample supply of stored food as to nourish developing roots and shoots and placed in the rooting media with the aid of a dibbler stick.
The cuttings for softwood should be 60 to 130 mm long and be of material with enough substance as to not deteriorate before the new roots appear. Cut below a node and retain the leaves on the upper portion. Place in a well-drained media and maintain a high humidity.
Soaking the cuttings and leaving them standing in water for long periods is undesirable.
These cuttings are taken from succulent plants such as Geraniums and Coleus. The cutting should be 70 to 130mm long with leaves retained on the upper end. As in softwood cuttings these require an environment of high humidity. Some fleshy cuttings ooze sap and may require a drying period for a few hours before being placed in the rooting media.
In these cuttings a leaf blade and petiole or part off is used to raise a new plant. The original leaf doses not become a part of the new plant as roots and shoots appear from the base of the leaf. In some cases roots appear from the severed veins.
These cuttings incorporate a leaf, petiole and a small piece of the stem. These cuttings are an advantage where the plant uses the axillary bud at the base of the petiole for new shoot growth and maximises available propagation material, as each node will produce a new plant.
As in softwood cuttings these require an environment with high humidity and warmth.
These cuttings are best taken from younger plants during late winter to early spring prior the new season's growth unless the dormant period is during summer.
Trim the roots as they are dug up and to maintain polarity cut strength at the crown end and a slanted cut at the distal end (away from the crown).
Root cuttings of small plants are placed in flats in lengths of 20 to 50mm and laying horizontally on the surface of the soil. These may be lightly covered with sieved sand or media, watered and then placing a piece of glass or polyethylene over the container till roots / shoots appear.
Fleshy Root Cuttings
These cuttings should be 50 to 75mm long and placed vertically in a well-drained sand media.
Keep the polarity correct and when the roots develop transplant the cuttings into a separate container.
Large Root Cuttings
These cuttings are 50 to 150mm long and are tied up in bundles and placed in boxes of damp sand, sawdust or peat for about three weeks at a temperature of 4. 5 deg C. When taken out they should be planted in a prepared bed 50 to 80mm apart with the tops of the cuttings level with or just below the soil level.
Various Aphid Species
Description of the Pest
The common name varies and aphids may be referred to as black fly, greenfly, ant cows or plant lice.
These small insects have soft globular body that is from 1mm to 8mm long and vary in colour from green, yellow, black and pink, with the winged forms being elongated. Both adult and nymphs, have piercing and sucking mouthparts.
Aphids are found on buds, flowers, or leaves and stems, preferring soft new growth. On older leaves the aphids are found in protected positions, such as under the leaf. Certain species of aphids form galls as they suck sap and may be found on the roots of the plant. (E.g. Woolly aphids and Black peach aphids)
Most aphids possess a pair of characteristic tubular projections, known as cornicles; these secrete a pheromone and a waxy fluid, which is thought to protect them from some of their predacious enemies.
White exoskeletons, honey dew and sooty mould indicate the presence of Aphids
Balsam Twig Aphid (Mindarus abietinus) is greenish and covered in a white wax and is normally found on the young shoots of conifers bending and killing the needles. It is found on Abies and Picea species.
Aphid and their exoskeletons on underside of a leaf
Black Citrus Aphid (Toxoptera aurantii) has a soft plump green body and the black coloured adults may or may not be winged. They feed in groups, curling leaves and producing honeydew attracting sooty mould.
Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) is a soft plump green insect up to 0.2mm long and may be wingless. The nymphs are yellowish green and are responsible for spreading viruses in Dianthus species.
Spruce Gall Aphid (Chermes abietis) form cone shaped galls up to 12mm long resulting from the feeding. The wingless female adult lays eggs on the stems and the immature females overwinter on bud scales. Large infestation will weaken trees such as Picea abies and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
Tulip Bulb Aphid (Anuraphis tulipae) is small, waxy grey coloured and infests the underside of the bulb scales or rhizomes. They occur in the ground or on above ground parts and during storage.
These insects have a Hemimetabolous life cycle, i.e. The nymphs resemble the adults.
During spring all eggs produced hatch as female nymphs. Adult Aphids are capable reproducing without fertilisation. The males are only produced in some species as the weather cools down, and the day length shortens.
Aphids are capable of giving birth to living young and large populations build up quickly during summer. Over crowding causes the aphids to become smaller, less fertile and produce more winged forms that can migrate to other host plants.
There are many different types of aphids and the life cycle varies from warm to cold climates.
Typical life cycles
Distribution of the Pest
Period of Activity
In warm climates they are seen throughout the year, but aphids dislike hot dry or cold conditions and heavy rain will decrease the population. In cold areas aphid eggs are laid around a bud base or other protected areas of the plant during autumn and emerge as nymphs during spring, feeding on the new growth.
Numbers build up quickly in the warmer months of the year. Some species feed during winter on Sow thistles.
There is a wide range of plants attacked, from roses to vegetables, shrubs and trees. Certain aphids attack a specific genus while others have a wide range of host plants. Many are capable of transmitting plant virus diseases.
Adults and nymphs feeding A colony of aphids
Acer species are attacked by several aphids including the Norway Maple Aphid (Periphyllus lyropictus) which is a greenish with brown markings and secret honeydew, preferring Acer platanoides. Other aphids include (Drepanaphis acerifolia) and (Periphyllus aceris) which are commonly found on the underside of leaves.
Acer species are also attacked by the Woolly Maple Aphid (Phenacoccus acericola) which covers the undersides of the leaves with a cotton-like mass
Alnus species are infested with the Alder Blight Aphid (Prociphilus tessellates) which is blue-black adult that forms woolly masses on the down-turned leaves. The nymphs overwinter in bark crevices.
Aquilegia species are attacked by several aphids including (Pergandeidia trirhoda) which is a small, flat cream coloured insect that is found on young branches and the underside of leaves.
Betula species may be attacked by the European Birch Aphid (Euceraphis betulae) which is small and yellowish or the Common Birch Aphid (Calaphis betulaecolens) which is large and green producing ample honeydew for sooty mold to grow on.
Callistephus species may be attacked by the Corn Root Aphid (Anuraphis maidi-radicis) causing the plant to become stunted, the leaves wilt and turn yellow. The aphids feed on the roots producing honeydew and are dispersed to other host by ants. It is also attacked by the Potato Aphid (Macrosiphum solanifolii).
Carya species are attacked by Gall Aphids (Phylloxera caryaecaulis) which is found on the leaves, twigs and stems forming galls and turning them black.
Chaenomeles and Gladiolus species, new growth and leaves become infested with the aphid (Aphis Gossypii)
Cupressus macrocarpa may become infested with the Cypress Aphid (Siphonartrophia cupressi).
Cyclamen species are attacked by the aphid (Myzus circumflexus) and (Aphis gossypii) which can infest healthy plants.
Dendranthema, Dianthus and Crocus species are attacked by several types of aphid including the Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) and the Chrysanthemum Aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni).
Hibiscus species are attacked by the aphids (Aphis craccivora) and (Aphis gossypii), both congregate towards the branch tips and may cause leaf curl. Normally only seen in sub-tropical climates.
Aphids on a stem Mandevilla species
Larix species is attacked by the Woolly Larch Aphid (Adelges strobilobius). The winged adults deposit eggs at the base of the needles during spring and white woolly areas appear attached to the needles where the adult aphids feed. The young aphids overwinter in the crevices of the bark.
Mandevilla species is attacked by aphids that congregate towards the branch tips and may cause leaf curl.
Pinus species is attacked by several species of aphid including Pine Bark Aphid (Pineus strobi), Pine leaf Aphid (Pineus pinifoliae) and the White Pine Aphid (Cinara strobi).
Primula species are attacked by four species of aphid including foxglove, and green peach aphid.
Rudbeckia, Delphinium, Chrysanthemum and Helianthus species are attacked by a bright red aphid (Macrosiphum rudbeckiae).
Sorbus aucuparia is affected by the Rosy Apple and Woolly Apple aphid which attacked the foliage and young shoots.
Spiraea species are attacked by the Aphid (Aphis spiraecola) which feeds on the young shoots and flowers.
Tropaeolum species are attacked by the Black Bean Aphid (Aphis fabae), which is found in large numbers on the underside of the leaves, turning them yellow and causing them to wilt then die.
Tulipa, Iris, Freesia, Gladiolus and Zephyranthes species are infested with the Tulip Bulb Aphid.
Ulmus species are infected by two types the Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), which curls and kills young terminal leaves and the Elm Leaf-Curl Aphid (Eriosoma ulmi) which occasionally attacks the trees.
Viburnum species are attacked by the Snowball Aphid (Anuraphis viburnicola). This aphid congregates at the end of the branches causing the leaves to curl and become deformed under which they hide.
Aphids on Quercus robur
Buds that have been attacked may not open, leaves and twigs become twisted or distorted and wilt. The aphids also produce honeydew, which is sticky and attracts sooty mould (fungus). This fungus forms a thick layer over the leaf, fruit or stems reducing the plants photosynthesis capability. The sooty mould spoils the plants appearance and its fruit, as does the insects white exoskeletons.
Aphids may be removed from a plant by hosing them off with water (limited success) or applying soapy water to aphids.. Another organic sprays can be efficient in controlling aphids. Aphids may also be removed physically by hand for small colonies on spine less plants. Species that live under ground are difficult to control but cultivation of the surrounding soil may help in controlling the infestation. (limited mainly to annual or commercial crops)
Reflective mulch around the plants also reduces numbers by repelling the insect this material is available commercially. (Reflective mulches are mainly used in market gardens for avoiding the Green peach Aphids) Resistant rootstocks are available to avoid some root feeding aphid of commercial plants, e.g. Vines and fruit trees
Aphids are attacked by several insects includes parasitic wasps or predators such as ladybirds/ lady beetles, hover flies, lacewings, spiders.
Aphids may be controlled by spraying with a contact or systemic insecticide. The type of application used will depend on the plant is being attacked.
Aphids can be suffocated and therefore controlled with the use of e.g. White oil, Pest oil, Soapy water from soap such as Lux Flakes ®
It is your responsibility by law to read & follow the directions on the label of any pesticide
Aphid are attracted by yellow colour and traps such as boards painted yellow and covered in glue or sticky substance will attract and trap the insects. There is also a commercially sticky yellow tape that can be attached to susceptible plants
Amendments by B. Sonsie Dip Hort Sc Burnley
Various Powdery Mildew Species
Powdery mildew covers arrange of fungal infections most with simular characteristics of white powdery areas appearing on the leaves and flowers.
White powdery area
Powdery mildew (Oidium species) affects the following five plant groups with slightly different characteristics.
Cucurbits firstly form white spots on the underside of the leaves. Under optimum conditions the fungus spreads to the upper surface covering the entire leaf causing it to die. It may also extend to the stems slowing the growth of the plant and may reduce the size of the fruit.
Grape leaves, flowers and fruit are attacked with the appearance of greyish-white powdery spots. Infected flowers set poor quality fruit and infected fruit splits open and dries out.
Pawpaw leaves become infected on the underside at first then spreading covering the entire leaf. The fruit forms irregular light grey spotted areas that damages the surface and under the surface causing the fruit to misshapen and reducing its market value.
Rose leaf and buds are covered in a fine white powdery coating and in severe cases it extends to the stems. When young leaves are infected they become distorted and older leaves develop blackened areas. Infected flower buds may fail to open and opened blooms may be discoloured or distorted.
Strawberries show different signs of infection with the leaf margins first rolling upwards then developing purplish irregular blotches along the veins. The infected flowers may fail to set fruit and if fruit is produced it is small, hard fails to ripen. Semi mature fruit that is infected has dull appearance and may form cracks or split open.
The Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca lanestris) infects leaves and twigs. The under side if the leaf firstly has a white mealy growth that matures to felt-like brown mycelium that can cover the entire leaf, and the twig tips. It is only one of the many types that infect Quercus species.
Source and Dispersal
The spores overwinter in fallen leaves, dormant buds, seed and infested plants. It is dispersed by wind.
Generally it prefers warm humid conditions, but failing to germinate when it is raining. The fungus that attacks Pawpaw prefers cooler conditions disappearing in the warmer months.
There are many plant species ornamental trees and shrubs that are attacked by Oidium species including; Roses, African Violets, Cucurbits, Grapes, Pawpaw, Strawberries, Hydrangeas, Ajugas, Antirrhinum, Oaks and Photinias.
Acer species are infected by the powdery mildews (Uncinula circinata) and (Phyllactinia corylea) but are not normally serious.
Aesculus species are infected by the powdery mildew (Uncinula flexuosa) which forms a white mold on the underside of the leaves.
Arenaria,Cuphea, Erica and Eschscholtzia species are infected by the powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni). This fungus is greyish or white and covers leaves or young shoots. Heavenly infected leaves turn brown and fall from the plant. The plant eventually dies.
Aster species are infected with the powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) which is more prevalent on the lower part of the plant.
Ceanothus, Corylus, Platanus, Syringa and Weigela species are infected by the powdery mildew (Microsphaera alni) particularly London Plane. The mycelium forms a felt-like cover on the leaves.
Celtis species are susceptible to the powdery mildew (Uncinula parvula) and (Uncinula polychaete). This fungal problem can affect either side of the leaf, which can have spots or be completely coved in mildew. The fruiting bodies appear on the opposite side of the mildew.
Cornus species leaves are infected by the powdery mildew (Microsphaera alni) and (Phyllactinia corylea), covering the leaves in a whitish fungus.
Dahlia species are infected by the powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) that forms white powdery areas on the leaf surface.
Lagerstroemia species are infected by the powdery mildew (Uncinula Australiana) that forms white powdery growth on the leaves and may also distort the infected foliage.
Populus and Salix species are infected by a white powdery mildew (Uncinula salicis) that produces black fruiting bodies with a curled tip, but is not normally a major problem.
Quercus species are susceptible to several powdery mildew fungi including (Sphaerotheca lanestris), (Erysiph trina) and (Phyllactinia corylea). Generally white mealy growth appears on the leaves, normally on the underside turning the infected areas brown and then the leaf dies. The infection may spread to the twig tips causing dieback. Control may be difficult and unwarranted on large trees but nursery stock may be sprayed with a fungicide during susceptible periods.
Rosa species are also infected by the powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa).
Rudbeckia and Senecio species are covered in white fungus (Erysiphe cichoracearum) which infects leaves, flowers and stems. This results in the plant becoming stunted.
Senecio species are infected by the powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) which forms circular white powdery areas on the leaves.
Spiraea species are infected by the Powdery Mildew (Microsphaera alni) and (Podosphaera oxyacanthae).
Ulmus and Rhododendron (Azalea) species are also infected by (Microsphaera alni). Circular patches of white powdery growth appear on the leaves.
Veronica species are sometimes infected by the powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca humili) causing a white coating to appear on the leaves. Not normally a major problem.
Zinnia elegans are commonly infected by the powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichororacearum), which appears on both sides of the leaves as a greyish powdery cover and may be transmitted by seed.
Choose less susceptible species and when planting space the plants to allow good air circulation. Avoid overwatering and try to keep the foliage dry. Affected plants may be dusted with powdered sulphur or sprayed with a milk mixture to discourage mildew. Vegetables that are infected with mildew should be removed and replaced with new young plants, as they are more resistant to infection.
Prenatitive spraying during warm humid conditions using a suitable fungicide such as wettable sulphur, bitertanol, carbendazim, fenarimol and triforine helps control the problem.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Leaf Spot (General)
Various Leaf Spot Species
There is a wide variety of fungal leaf spots that infect perennials, shrub and trees. Some are specific to the host while others can affect a range of plants.
Generally light brown to purplish or blackish spots appear on the leaf and form concentric rings of fruiting bodies. The spots may leave holes, perforating the leaf or expand with pale green to yellowish margins and when the holes merge the leaf normally dies. There are many different types of leaf spot, some are discussed below.
Alternaria Leaf Spot (Alternaria nelumbii) forms a small reddish brown spots that are boarded in light green, and as they develop in size the leaf curls and dies from the margin inwards. Normally occurs on Nelumbo species (water lilies).
Helminthosporium Disease (Bipolris species), (Drechslera species) and (Exserophilum species) are responsible for several leaf spots that occur on all Turf Grass species. Generally they form black or white spots that may be faded and produce masses of spores in the thatch during late summer, under humid conditions. The life cycle is short and when conditions are favourable spores are splashed onto the foliage from the thatch, causing wide spread infection. Cynodon dactylon (common couch) is most susceptible and found in bowling or golf greens where it is a serious problem.
Banana Leaf Spot
Banana Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella musicola) is found on many species of banana causing pale yellow streaks on the young leaves to turn brown with dark spots. The leaf then becomes dried, brown and dead commencing from the margins, eventually the leaf dies. Control requires removal of infected foliage or the spraying of a fungicide and fungicides should not be used during the fruiting period.
Lophostemon confertus (Brush Box)
Leaf Spot on Brush Box (Elsinoe species). This is a casual fungus that attacks the epidermal layer of the leaf, forming circular spots that are up to 25mm across and are often restricted by the main vein. These spots are a dull yellowish brown but can also have purplish patterns. A leaf may have more than one spot develop on its surface and normally appears on scattered leaves throughout the tree. This doesn't affect the vigour of Lophostemon confertus.
Palm Leaf-scab (Graphiola phoeicis) appears as yellow spots and develop into scabs or warts that are outwards hard and dark but with a soft centre with powdery yellowish brown spores. The infected leaves eventually die.
Palm Leaf Spot, Chamaedorea elegans
Palm Leaf Spot (Pestaloptiopsis species) appears as a small spot with a dark centre on the leaves and affects palms that are growing in shaded humid positions and normally control is not required, though infected fronds should be removed.
Source and Dispersal
Infection source is other contaminated plants and the spores are spread by wind or by splashing water. The fruiting bodies are black spots that appear on the damaged tissue releasing spores.
This fungus prefers a warm humid environment and leafy plants with soft new growth, particularly if they are crowded.
There are many ornamental and native plants that are hosts to a wide range of fungal leaf spots. Some specific ones are listed below. Plants such as Cornus or Paeonia species are infected by a large variety of leaf spots, while other plants attract a specific leaf spot.
Generally a healthy plant can tolerate fungal leaf spot attack, though it may make the plant look unsightly. In trees and shrubs it is difficult to control and generally not necessary, but in perennials and annuals control may be necessary in order to save the plant.
Acalypha and Arctotis species are infected by up to three leaf spots including (Cercospora acalyphae) and (Ramularia acalyphae) that rarely require control.
Acer species are infected by Purple Eye (Phyllosticta minima) which forms spots with brownish centres and purplish margins causing the death of the leaves.
Acer species are also infected by Tar Spot (Rhytisma acerinum) which forms round black spots that have yellow margins. Not normally seen on cultivated trees, but seen in forests.
Adiantum, Asplenium, Blechnum, Cyathea, Davallia, Nephrolepis, Platycerium, Polypodium and Pteris species are infected by the leaf spot (Pseudocercopora species) which forms circular brown spots on the fronds and heavy infection can defoliate a plant.
Aesculus species are occasionally infected with the leaf spot (Septoria hippocastani) which forms small brown spots.
Agave species are susceptible to the leaf spot (Coniothyrium concentricum), which appear as greyish spots up to 20mm (1in) across with concentric rings and black fruiting bodies. Affected leaves are destroyed as the infection spreads.
Albizia julibrissin is susceptible to the fungal leaf spot (gloeosporium aletridis), which does not normally require control.
Amelanchler, Chaenomeles, Crataegus and Rhaphiolepis species Mespilus germanica are infected by the leaf spot (Fabraea maculata) which may cause considerable damage during wet periods.
Aquilegia species can be infected by three types of Leaf Spot including (Ascochyta aquilegiae), (Cercospora aquilegiae) and (Septoria aquilegiae), normally appearing during humid conditions forming spots on the leaves.
Arbutus species are infected by two leaf spots (Septoria Unedonis) which produces small brown spots on the leaves and (Elsinoe mattirolianum).
Arctostaphylos manzanita is infected by the leave spot (Cryptostictis arbuti) which damages leaves but is not normally detrimental to the shrub.
Aspidistra species are infected by the leaf spot (Colletotrichum omnivorum) causing whitish spots on the leaves and petiole.
Aster species are infected by many leaf spots including (Alternaria species), (Cercosporella cana), ( Ovularia asteris) and (Septoria asteris).
Aucuba species are infected by several leaf spots, usually as a secondary infection after aphid attack. These include (Phyllosticta aucubae) and (Phyllostica aucubae).
Azalea (Rhododendron species) are susceptible to Leaf Scorch (Septoria azalea). This fungal disease forms reddish- brown spots which expand and engulf the leaf, with fruiting bodies appearing in the centre. Infected leaves die, then fall and the branchlets wilt. This problem is more serious during wet periods and may require control using a fungicide.
Banksia species are infected by several leaf spots causing chlorotic areas that have brown centres and is not normally a major problem for the plant.
Betula species may be infected by the Leaf Spots (Gloeosporium betularum) that forms brown spots with darker margins and (Cylindrosporium betulae) that also forms brown spots with faded indefinite margins.
Bougainvillea species are infected by the leaf spot (Cercosporidium bougainvilleae) which forms rounded spots with dark margins that yellowish ting. Infected leaves die and fall from the plant.
Calendula species are infected by the Leaf Spot (Cercospora calendulae) which rapidly infects the plant spotting the leaves and killing the plant.
Callicarpa species may be infected by the leaf spot (Atractilina callicarpae) forming irregular brownish spot or (Cercospora callicarpae) which can defoliate the plant in subtropical climates.
Campsis species may be infected by several fungal leaf spots including (Phyllosticta tecomae), (Septoria tecomae) and (Cercospora duplicata).
Carpinus species are infected by the leaf spots (Gloeosporium robergei), (Gnomoniella fimbriata) and (Septoria carpinea), all are minor infections not normally requiring control.
Carya species are infected by several leaf spots including (Gnomonia caryae) that infects leaves with irregular reddish spots on the upper surface with corresponding brown spore producing spots on the underside. It also has a secondary spore release that occurs on the dead leaves where it over winters. Other leaf spots include (monochaetia desmazierii) and (Marssonina juglandis).
Ceanothus species are susceptible to the leaf spot (Cercospora ceanothi) and (Phyllosticta ceanothi) both are of minor importance not requiring control.
Celtis species are infected by many leaf spots including (Cercosporella celtidis), (Cylindrosporium celtidis), (Phleospora celtidis) and (Septogloeum celtidis).
Chrysanthemums species are infected by the leaf spot (Septoria species) which forms yellow spots appear toward the edge of the leaves; these become enlarged brownish patches with yellow margins. Damaged areas may converge and in severe attacks and the leaves may fall prematurely or flower production is reduced.
Clematis species are infected by the fungal disease (Ascochyta clematidina) which may cause stem rot or leaf spots that are water soaked areas with reddish margins. The infection spreads from the leaves to the stem causing wilting and eventually girdling the stem killing the plant. There are many fungal leaf spots that infect this plant including (Cercospora rubigo) and (Septoria clematidis)
Cordyline and Dracaena species may be infected by the leaf spot (Phyllosticta maculicola) which forms small brownish spots that have yellowish margins and has black fruiting bodies that forms coils of spores. These plants are also susceptible to other leaf spots such as (Glomerella cincta) and (Phyllosticta dracaaaenae). Keep foliage dry to avoid infection.
Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum clandestinum and many other Turf Grasses are susceptible to Helminthosporium Disease.
Daphne species are infected by the leaf spot (Gloeosporium mezerei) and (Marssonina daphnes) both of which form thickish brown spots that are seen on both sides of the leaves. Infected leaves turn yellowish before dieing.
Dendranthema species are infected by many leaf spots such as (Septoria chrysanthemi) which first forms yellowish spots up to 25mm (1in) across that become black. Infected leaves die prematurely and persist on the plant.
Dianthus species may be infected by the leaf spot (Septoria dianthi). It forms light brown rounded spots that have a purplish border. The scattered spots on the lower leaves can also be found on the stems and the spores are dispersed by water from the tiny black fruiting bodies.
Dieffenbachia species are infected by several leaf spot fungi including (Cephalosporium species) and (Myrothecium species).
Eucalyptus species are infected by many fungal leaf spots such as (Mycosphaeralla species), (Hendersonia species) and (Monocheatia monochaeta). Generally leaf spots appear on the juvenile or new leaves causing brownish spots that enlarge and may have a purplish halo around the margin. Mature adult leaves are not normally infected and the trees rarely require control measures.
Fern species are infected by the leaf spot, (Alternaria polypodii). This fungus appears as brown circular or oblong spots that congregate along the margins of the pinnae causing the fronds to turn brown and die. It is spread by wind currents from plant to plant and control methods include removing infected fronds and maintaining a drier atmosphere.
Ficus species are infected by various fungal leaf spot including (Pseudocercospora species). Generally the fungal attack forms circular or irregular dark coloured spots on the leaves eventually causing them to fall prematurely.
Ficus elastica is susceptible to many fungal leaf spots including (Alternaria species), (Leptostromella elastica) and (Phyllosticta roberti).
Fragaria x ananassa (Strawberry) is infected by the fungal leaf spot (Mycospharella fragariae). The mature leaf is initially infected with well defined brown spots that that turn light grey with red-purplish margins. As the spots merge they form large brown blotches and the leaf turns yellow then dies. This fungal attack normally occurs on plants in poor health and can be a serious problem early in the season seriously damaging stock.
Fraxinus species are infected by the leaf spot (Gloeosporium aridum) giving the leaf a scorched appearance as large blotches appear from the margin or apex and turn brown with a papery texture. It is more prevalent during rainy periods and infected leaves fall prematurely. Collect and depose of fallen leaves otherwise control is not normally required.
Fuchsia species may be infected by the leaf spot (Septoria species) or ( Cercospora species), both form spots with dead centres and dark margins.
Gladiolus species are infected by Hard Rot or Leaf Spot (Septoria gladioli). On the corms reddish brown circular water soaked spots become large and sunken. These areas dry out and form obvious margins. The leaves may also have these symptoms but is not commonly seen.
Hemerocallis species are infected by several leaf spots including (Cercospora hemerocallis) and (Heterosporium iridis). These may be in the form of black spots or brownish spots that converge killing the leaf. Infected leaves should be removed and burnt.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibiscus syriacus and Hibiscus tiliaceus are susceptible to several fungal leaf spots including (Ascochyta abelmoschi), (Cerospora kellermanii) and (Phyllosticta hibiscina). All cause spotting or blotching of the leaf surface; remove and destroy infected parts.
Hydrangea species are infected by four fungal species including (Ascochyta hydrangeae), (Phyllosticta hydrangeae) and (Septoria hydrangeae).
Iris species are infected by several fungal leaf spots including (Alternaria iridicola) and (Macosphaerella species).
Iris species are also infected by the leaf spot (Didymellina macrospore) that forms greyish spots with brown water soaked borders and coalesce on the upper part of the leaf. This casual organism commonly occurs after flowering killing the leaves but will not infect the bulbs. The bulbs become weak over several seasons due to the decreased foliage.
There is also a Bacterial Leaf Spot (Bacterium tardicrescens) that is commonly mistaken as a fungal problem causing translucent spots that coalesce and involve the entire leaf. Normally found on Iris species.
Laburnum anagyroides is infected by the Leaf Spot (Phyllosticta cytisii). The leaf forms light grey spots with no definite margin and mature to brown. The black fruiting bodies appear as dots in the centre of the spot.
Leucanthemum species are infected by the leaf spot (Cerocspora chrysanthemi) and (Septoria leucanthemi).
Magnolia species are susceptible to many species including (Alternaria tenuis), (Mycosphaerella milleri) and (Phyllosticta species). Leaves generally turn brown from the apex or margins turning brown or spots appear on the leaf surface and leaves become yellow before withering and dieing. Normally the make the tree look poorly but have little effect on its growth. Control is not normally required.
Nerium oleander is susceptible to several fungal leaf spots including (Cercospora nerella), (Cercospora repens), (Gloesporium species) and (Phyllosticta nerii). Infected leaves should be removed but generally control is not required.
Nyssa sylvatica is infected by the leaf spot (Mycosphaerella nyssaecola) forming irregular purplish blotches.
Orchids such as Cattleya, Cymbidium, Cypripedium, Dendrobium, Epidendrum, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis and Zygopetalum species are infected by several leaf spots including (Cerospora, Colletotrichum and Phyllosticta species). Normally forming dark or dead, circular or irregular areas on the leaves.
Palms such as Syagrus, Howea, Phoenix, Roystonea and Washingtonia species are infected by Leaf-scab (Graphiola phoeicis).
Palms such as Archontophoenix, Caryota, Chamaedorea, Cocos, Dypsis, Howea, Liculia, Linospadix, Livistona, Phoenix, Ptychosperma, Rhapis, Roystonea, Syagrus, Washingtonia and Wodyetia species are susceptible to several fungal leaf spots including;
(Bipolaris spp.), (Cylindrocladium spp.), (Colletotrichum spp.) and (Pestalotiopsis spp.).
Generally the circular leaf spots are brown and may have a yellow halo such as Palm Ring Spot (Bipolaris incurvata). They vary in size from small to large depending on the species. When a plant is healthy it recovers from attack, but heavy infections can defoliate, causing the collapse of the plant.
Palms are also infected by the Brachybasidium Leaf Spot (Brachybasidium pinangae). This fungus forms angular leaf lesions that produce fruiting bodies on the underside and is commonly found on Archontophoenix species.
Passiflora species are infected with many types of leaf spot such as (Alternaria passiflorae).
Phoenix species are susceptible to False Smut (Graphiola phoenicis). This fungus forms yellow leaf spots that become hard with a raised with a blackish scab, which produces masses of powdery spores that are thread-like.
Pittosporum species are susceptible to the leaf spots (Alternaria tenuissima), (Phyllostica species) and (Cercospora pittospori). Circular or angular dark spots appear on the leaves and are surrounded by necrotic areas that are yellowish. Generally removal of infected leaves is adequate control.
Poa species and other cool season grasses are infected by Winter Fusarium Leaf Disease (Fusarium species), which causes small pale spots that are water soaked to appear on the leaves that turn red-brown. Infected leaves become bleached then wither and die, but the infection will not affect the crown or roots of the plant. It can be identified by pink, cotton-like mycelium and the plant prefers cold wet weather.
Populus species are infected by several fungal leaf spots including (Ciborinia bifrons, Ciborinia confundens), and (Mycosphaerella populicola).
Prunus species are infected by several leaf spots including (Cercospora circumscissa and Septoria ravenelii).
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir is infected by the Leaf Cast (Rhabdocline pseudotsugae) Symptoms include the needles becoming yellowish at the apex and extending down the needle and spreading to others during moist spring weather turning them brown. Brownish scorched areas are noticeable on the tree from a distance. Control; is not normally required for mature trees but nursery stock may require spraying with a copper based fungicide.
Psidium guajava (Guava) is infected by (Glomerella cingulate). This fungus courses spots to appear on leaves and mummifies and blackens immature fruit or rots mature fruit. This fungus can devastate a guava crop.
Quercus species are infected by several types of leaf spot including (Cylindrosporium microspilum) and (Marssonina martini). These attacks tend top take place later in the season and normally not detrimental to the tree.
Rhododendron species are infected by a large variety of fungal leaf spots including (Cercospora rhododendri) and (lophodermium melaleucum)
Salix species are infected by several fungal leaf spots including (Ascochyta salicis) and (Septogloeum salicinum).
Senecio species are infected by the fungal leaf spot (Alternaria cinerariae) and (Cercospora species), forming dark rounded or angular spots.
Spiraea species are attacked by the fungal leaf spot (Cylindrosporium filipendulae).
Stenotaphrum secundatum (Buffalo) turf grass is susceptible to Grey Leaf Spot (Pyricularia grisea) in domestic and commercial situations devastating lawns. This fungal disease infects the stems and leaves with small brown lesions that enlarge rapidly forming grey-brown spots that have darker borders or surrounded by yellow chlorotic areas. This infection is commonly found on newly laid turf but will also infect established lawns. It is most prevalent during warm humid periods in soil with a high nitrogen level.
Syringa species are attacked by up to six species of leaf spot including (Cercospora lilacis) and (Phyllostica species).
Syzygium species are infected by fungal leaf spots but normally control is not required.
Tagetes species are infected by the leaf spot (Septoria tageticola), which starts at the base and moves progressively up through the plant, covering the leaves in grey to black spots.
Trillium species are host to several leaf spots, including (Colletotrichum peckii) (Gloeosporium Trillii) (Heterosporium trillii).
Ulmus species are infected by many fungal leaf spots including (Gnomonia ulmea) and (Cercospora sphaeriaeformis).
Veronica species are infected by the leaf spot (Septoria veronicae). The symptoms include small violet to brown spots appear on the upper surface of the leaf and correspondingly yellowish brown on the underside. The spots converge forming a scorched shot-hole appearance and eventually death of the leaf.
Vaccinium ovatum is infected by the leaf spot (Rhytisma vaccinii) and (Dothichiza caroliniana).
Vicia species are infected by the leaf spot (Erostrotheca multiformis), which forms greyish spots that enlarge and may defoliate the plant.
Wisteria species are infected by three fungal leaf spots (Phyllostica wisteriae), (Septoria wisteriae) and (Phomatospora wisteriae).
Remove and destroy infected plant material and avoid overhead watering. When planting select infection resistant varieties. Practice crop rotation and add pot ash to the soil to decrease the plants venerability to the disease. Many species of fungus overwinter in fallen leaves, remove and destroy any litter under the plant.
Winter Fusarium Leaf Disease in Turf Grasses can be minimised by aerating the soil, reducing thatch and avoid excessive nitrogen in the soil.
Protective fungicides such as zineb or copper oxychloride should be sprayed at the first sign of infection and cuttings should be sprayed as they start to grow.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Average Lowest Temperature : -5º C 23º F
USDA : 7-10
This USDA hardiness zone chart can be used to to indicate a plant’s ability to withstand average minimum temperatures. However, other factors such as soil type, moisture, drainage, humidity and exposure to sun and wind will also have a direct effect on your plant’s survival. Use this chart only as a guide, always keep the other factors in mind when deciding where, when and what to plant.
Plant's individual USDA zone can be found in the Plant Overview...
This zone has low winter temperatures and moderate summer temperatures with low humidity and cool nights.Frosts are severe with snow at higher altitudes.
Drought rarely occurs and wind is cold inland or wet on the coast.
Cool weather plants grow well.
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