Soft woodedNo secondary (woody) tissue being formed. The texture is fleshy and is soft, easy to cut.
Low Bun ShapeA plant forming a low mound, rounded shape.
This annual has upright woody branched stems that form a dense rounded habit. It has dark green oval leaves and the tiny blue to white tube-shaped flowers appear in fluffy terminal cluster densly over the plant from early spring to autumn.
Ageratum houstonianum is naturally found from Central and South America to the West Indies growing in woodlands. It prefers a well drained moderately fertile moist to dry light sandy to loamysoil with a pH range from 5.5 to 7.5 but will tolerate clay and chalky soils. It grows in an open sunny position and is light frost and drought tolerant.
Floss Flower Is grown for its flowers and is planted in small or cottage gardens along borders or used in bedding displays in large gardens or parks. It is suitable for coastal or inland regions establishing in one season and the flowers are cut and used in floral arrangements. Once established it has a medium water requirement, (Scale: 2-drops from 3) and responds to mulching with an occasional deep watering during dry periods.
UK hardiness zone H6
Climate zones 1-24
Ageratum (a-GE-ra-tum) houstonianum (hew-stõn-ee-AH-num)
'Imperial Tall Blue'
This annual grows to 600 mm (2 ft) tall and is widely used as a cut flower.
This annual grows to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produces lavender blue flowers.
This annual grows to 200 mm (7¾ in) and produces mid-blue flowers.
This annual grows to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produces bluish flowers
This annual grows to 350 mm (14 in) tall and produces mild blue flowers.
This annual grows to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produces powder blue flowers.
This annual grows to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produces lilac blue flowers.
This annual grows to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produces dark violet blue flowers.
'Spindrift' and ''White Angel'
These annuals grow to 250 mm (9¾ in) tall and produce white flowers.
This family is recognised by several features the florets are clustered in the flower head, inferior ovary has one basal ovule and the stamens are connate around the style.
This family is found throughout the world except Antarctica. In Australia they are found in arid and semi-arid regions covering large areas.
There are numerous growth forms from small annual herbs, ephemeral, biennial or perennial rosette plants, shrubs but rarely creepers.
The leaves do not have stipules and may be arranged opposite or alternate with margins that are entire to deeply lobed. The texture may be leathery or succulent and may be reduced to spins or needles.
The simple flower is in a tight inflorescence with many florets that sit on a fleshy receptacle that is surrounded by many involucral bracts. In some genera the bracts are reduced or not present and the receptacle may be in an elongated form giving it a club-shape inflorescence.
Each flower has an inferior ovary normally with a colourful corolla on top with the calyx reduced to scales, bristle or hairs around the corolla.
Three distinctive Floret Types
1. Disk florets are funnel form corolla tube that has five equal lobes with fertile stamens and ovary.
2. The ligulate florets with a corolla that is split down one side and the limb formed is extended to form showy ray florets. These flowers are unisexual.
3. The filiform florets come from disk florets when the corolla tube is a slim cylindrical shape and these are normally unisexual.
The fruit produced from the different types is normally a cypsela (type of achene) although some florets don't produce fruit.
The corolla has five petals, which are five lobes in disk florets but are not easily seen in other types.
The stamens are arranged alternate with the petals and the filaments are normally fused to the corolla tube with the anthers arranged around the style in a connate form.
When the pollen falls onto the closed stigma the style elongates above the stamens and then the stigma opens to be pollinated.
The ovary is inferior with one chamber and one ovule and forms a one seeded fruit, which is really an indehiscent fruit (cypsela). These are normally distributed by animals with barbs formed by the pappus and some by wind.
This is one of the largest families but with low economic importance. They are used in the horticulture industry largely for cut flowers and in the case of sunflowers for seed oil. Many species are grown in domestic gardens and many have become weeds that are wide spread throughout the world.
This plant tolerates between USDA zones 9a to 12a and grows to 0.4 m (12in)
Fahrenheit 20º to 55º F
These temperatures represent the lowest average.
Celsius -3.9º to 12.7ºC
All photographs and data are covered by copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, reference or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any means with out written permission. All inquiries should be addressed to plantfile.com attention Peter Kirkland.
SimpleThe leaf that is not divided.
OvateThe leaf that is broadest at the base tapering towards the apex.
OppositeLeaves that are arranged opposite to each other.
CrenateA leaf margin that is saw toothed with the teeth being rounded.
TubulateA flower that forms a tube shape.
CapitulumSessile florets on a flattened and expanded apex (a daisy-like flower). Ray florets can be absent.
The tiny tubular blue to mauve flowers are crowded into terminal fluffy cluster up to 25 mm (1 in) wide. It appears above the foliage in a cluster on a short peduncle profusely over the plant from early spring to autumn.
CypselaAn achene with a thin leathery pericarp and a parachute-like pappus."
Floss Flower Is grown for its flowers and is planted in small or cottage gardens along borders or used in bedding displays in large gardens or parks.It is suitable for coastal or inland regions establishing in one season and the flowers are cut and used in floral arrangements. Cut flowers should have long stems and should be scalded in hot water for 15 seconds before arranging in fresh water.
Note: in cold regions it is deciduous but in tropical regions the foliage persists throughout the year.
Surface sow fresh seed and keep moist, from spring, summer and autumn. Prick out when large enough and space plants at 150 mm (6 in) apart in prepared beds.
Propagation by Seed (General)
In order for a seed to germinate it must fulfil three conditions.
1. The embryo must be alive (a viable seed).
2. The seed must have no dormancy-inducing physiological, physical or chemical barrier to germination; also the seed must be nondormant.
3. The seed must have the appropriate environmental requirements, water, temperature and oxygen.
The interaction between these requirements and dormancy is complex and may lead to different environmental requirements that avoid the dormancy of a seed.
Sowing Seeds in Containers
There are two general methods for germinating seeds.
1. Sowing seeds in a flat or germinating bed, through which seedlings are pricked-out then, transplanted into another flat with wider spacing or directly to an individual pot.
2. Sowing seeds by placing them in to flats with the appropriate spacing or into individual pots.
This method is normally carried out with medium to large seeds such as woody plants and plants that are difficult to transplant.
Seedling production normally occurs in a greenhouse / glasshouse, cold frames and on hot beds.
Method of Seed Sowing
Fine seed is sown in pots or flats that are no deeper than 70 to 80 mm. using a sterilised well-drained media (soil). Fill the container to 20 mm from the top and sprinkle sieved peat to 3 mm depth.
Press the media down level and firm with a piece of timber and then thoroughly moisten.
Mix the fine seed with washed sand and then sow thinly on the surface. These may be lightly covered with sand.
Larger seeds may be covered with media or a hole is dibbled and the seed is placed in the media.
For watering you may either mist the containers from above or place the container in tepid water and allow the water to raise through the pot to the surface of the media, then drain away and do not fill to the top of the container.
Place a piece of glass over the pot and store in a protected warm environment (glasshouse).
Seeds germinate best in darkness so shade the containers if in direct sunlight.
After the seedlings have sprouted remove the glass and ease the seedlings into direct light.
When the seedlings are large enough prick them out and transplant into larger containers and place them in a shade house to harden off.
Many seeds have different methods of seed preparation for germination such as nicking or cutting the seed coat to allow water penetration, also placing seeds in hot water and allowing it to cool off.
This is particularly important as it is softening the seed coat.
Various Aphid Species
Description of the Pest
The common name varies and aphids may be referred to as black fly, greenfly, ant cows or plant lice.
These small insects have soft globular body that is from 1mm to 8mm long and vary in colour from green, yellow, black and pink, with the winged forms being elongated. Both adult and nymphs, have piercing and sucking mouthparts.
Aphids are found on buds, flowers, or leaves and stems, preferring soft new growth. On older leaves the aphids are found in protected positions, such as under the leaf. Certain species of aphids form galls as they suck sap and may be found on the roots of the plant. (E.g. Woolly aphids and Black peach aphids)
Most aphids possess a pair of characteristic tubular projections, known as cornicles; these secrete a pheromone and a waxy fluid, which is thought to protect them from some of their predacious enemies.
White exoskeletons, honey dew and sooty mould indicate the presence of Aphids
Balsam Twig Aphid (Mindarus abietinus) is greenish and covered in a white wax and is normally found on the young shoots of conifers bending and killing the needles. It is found on Abies and Picea species.
Aphid and their exoskeletons on underside of a leaf
Black Citrus Aphid (Toxoptera aurantii) has a soft plump green body and the black coloured adults may or may not be winged. They feed in groups, curling leaves and producing honeydew attracting sooty mould.
Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) is a soft plump green insect up to 0.2mm long and may be wingless. The nymphs are yellowish green and are responsible for spreading viruses in Dianthus species.
Spruce Gall Aphid (Chermes abietis) form cone shaped galls up to 12mm long resulting from the feeding. The wingless female adult lays eggs on the stems and the immature females overwinter on bud scales. Large infestation will weaken trees such as Picea abies and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
Tulip Bulb Aphid (Anuraphis tulipae) is small, waxy grey coloured and infests the underside of the bulb scales or rhizomes. They occur in the ground or on above ground parts and during storage.
These insects have a Hemimetabolous life cycle, i.e. The nymphs resemble the adults.
During spring all eggs produced hatch as female nymphs. Adult Aphids are capable reproducing without fertilisation. The males are only produced in some species as the weather cools down, and the day length shortens.
Aphids are capable of giving birth to living young and large populations build up quickly during summer. Over crowding causes the aphids to become smaller, less fertile and produce more winged forms that can migrate to other host plants.
There are many different types of aphids and the life cycle varies from warm to cold climates.
Typical life cycles
Distribution of the Pest
Period of Activity
In warm climates they are seen throughout the year, but aphids dislike hot dry or cold conditions and heavy rain will decrease the population. In cold areas aphid eggs are laid around a bud base or other protected areas of the plant during autumn and emerge as nymphs during spring, feeding on the new growth.
Numbers build up quickly in the warmer months of the year. Some species feed during winter on Sow thistles.
There is a wide range of plants attacked, from roses to vegetables, shrubs and trees. Certain aphids attack a specific genus while others have a wide range of host plants. Many are capable of transmitting plant virus diseases.
Adults and nymphs feeding A colony of aphids
Acer species are attacked by several aphids including the Norway Maple Aphid (Periphyllus lyropictus) which is a greenish with brown markings and secret honeydew, preferring Acer platanoides. Other aphids include (Drepanaphis acerifolia) and (Periphyllus aceris) which are commonly found on the underside of leaves.
Acer species are also attacked by the Woolly Maple Aphid (Phenacoccus acericola) which covers the undersides of the leaves with a cotton-like mass
Alnus species are infested with the Alder Blight Aphid (Prociphilus tessellates) which is blue-black adult that forms woolly masses on the down-turned leaves. The nymphs overwinter in bark crevices.
Aquilegia species are attacked by several aphids including (Pergandeidia trirhoda) which is a small, flat cream coloured insect that is found on young branches and the underside of leaves.
Betula species may be attacked by the European Birch Aphid (Euceraphis betulae) which is small and yellowish or the Common Birch Aphid (Calaphis betulaecolens) which is large and green producing ample honeydew for sooty mold to grow on.
Callistephus species may be attacked by the Corn Root Aphid (Anuraphis maidi-radicis) causing the plant to become stunted, the leaves wilt and turn yellow. The aphids feed on the roots producing honeydew and are dispersed to other host by ants. It is also attacked by the Potato Aphid (Macrosiphum solanifolii).
Carya species are attacked by Gall Aphids (Phylloxera caryaecaulis) which is found on the leaves, twigs and stems forming galls and turning them black.
Chaenomeles and Gladiolus species, new growth and leaves become infested with the aphid (Aphis Gossypii)
Cupressus macrocarpa may become infested with the Cypress Aphid (Siphonartrophia cupressi).
Cyclamen species are attacked by the aphid (Myzus circumflexus) and (Aphis gossypii) which can infest healthy plants.
Dendranthema, Dianthus and Crocus species are attacked by several types of aphid including the Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) and the Chrysanthemum Aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni).
Hibiscus species are attacked by the aphids (Aphis craccivora) and (Aphis gossypii), both congregate towards the branch tips and may cause leaf curl. Normally only seen in sub-tropical climates.
Aphids on a stem Mandevilla species
Larix species is attacked by the Woolly Larch Aphid (Adelges strobilobius). The winged adults deposit eggs at the base of the needles during spring and white woolly areas appear attached to the needles where the adult aphids feed. The young aphids overwinter in the crevices of the bark.
Mandevilla species is attacked by aphids that congregate towards the branch tips and may cause leaf curl.
Pinus species is attacked by several species of aphid including Pine Bark Aphid (Pineus strobi), Pine leaf Aphid (Pineus pinifoliae) and the White Pine Aphid (Cinara strobi).
Primula species are attacked by four species of aphid including foxglove, and green peach aphid.
Rudbeckia, Delphinium, Chrysanthemum and Helianthus species are attacked by a bright red aphid (Macrosiphum rudbeckiae).
Sorbus aucuparia is affected by the Rosy Apple and Woolly Apple aphid which attacked the foliage and young shoots.
Spiraea species are attacked by the Aphid (Aphis spiraecola) which feeds on the young shoots and flowers.
Tropaeolum species are attacked by the Black Bean Aphid (Aphis fabae), which is found in large numbers on the underside of the leaves, turning them yellow and causing them to wilt then die.
Tulipa, Iris, Freesia, Gladiolus and Zephyranthes species are infested with the Tulip Bulb Aphid.
Ulmus species are infected by two types the Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), which curls and kills young terminal leaves and the Elm Leaf-Curl Aphid (Eriosoma ulmi) which occasionally attacks the trees.
Viburnum species are attacked by the Snowball Aphid (Anuraphis viburnicola). This aphid congregates at the end of the branches causing the leaves to curl and become deformed under which they hide.
Aphids on Quercus robur
Buds that have been attacked may not open, leaves and twigs become twisted or distorted and wilt. The aphids also produce honeydew, which is sticky and attracts sooty mould (fungus). This fungus forms a thick layer over the leaf, fruit or stems reducing the plants photosynthesis capability. The sooty mould spoils the plants appearance and its fruit, as does the insects white exoskeletons.
Aphids may be removed from a plant by hosing them off with water (limited success) or applying soapy water to aphids.. Another organic sprays can be efficient in controlling aphids. Aphids may also be removed physically by hand for small colonies on spine less plants. Species that live under ground are difficult to control but cultivation of the surrounding soil may help in controlling the infestation. (limited mainly to annual or commercial crops)
Reflective mulch around the plants also reduces numbers by repelling the insect this material is available commercially. (Reflective mulches are mainly used in market gardens for avoiding the Green peach Aphids) Resistant rootstocks are available to avoid some root feeding aphid of commercial plants, e.g. Vines and fruit trees
Aphids are attacked by several insects includes parasitic wasps or predators such as ladybirds/ lady beetles, hover flies, lacewings, spiders.
Aphids may be controlled by spraying with a contact or systemic insecticide. The type of application used will depend on the plant is being attacked.
Aphids can be suffocated and therefore controlled with the use of e.g. White oil, Pest oil, Soapy water from soap such as Lux Flakes ®
It is your responsibility by law to read & follow the directions on the label of any pesticide
Aphid are attracted by yellow colour and traps such as boards painted yellow and covered in glue or sticky substance will attract and trap the insects. There is also a commercially sticky yellow tape that can be attached to susceptible plants
Amendments by B. Sonsie Dip Hort Sc Burnley
Note: Plants affected by this pest are Deer Resistant plants not the susceptible plants.
Description of the Pest
There are two species of the deer in North America, the Whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and the Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with several regional variations such as the Pacific coastal Blacktail (O.h. columbianus) which is regarded as a sub-species of the Mule deer.
The Whitetail on average grows to 112 cm (44in) tall and 180 mm (70 in) long and weigh 68 kgs (150lbs). The fir colour varies according to its environment but generally it is reddish-brown during summer and grey-brown in winter with a pure white underside on its tail. When the tail is erect it is known as the "white flag". Its antlers consist of two main beams from which the points emerge.
The Mule deer grow to 105 cm (42 in) tall and are up to 200 cm (80 in) long with the adult buck weighing up to 137 kgs (300 lbs) and the does up to 80 kgs (175 lbs). The fir is generally tawny brown during summer and during winter it has a heaver grey-brown to blue-grey coat with a small white tail that is tipped in black. The other distinguishing features are its ears that are up to 300 mm (1 ft) long (mule-like) and its antlers, with the two beams that are forked into smaller beams, which inturn fork again and again.
The Blacktail deer (Pacific coastal Blacktail) grows to 97 cm (38 in) tall and is up to 105 cm (60 in) long and weighs on average 73 kgs (160 lbs). The fir is generally tawny brown during summer and during winter it has a heaver grey-brown to blue-grey coat with a tail that is dark brown at the base then changing to black for 50% of its length. The antlers consist of two beams that are forked into smaller beams, which inturn fork again and again.
Appearance and Distribution of the Pest
The Whitetail deer are found throughout eastern United States, on the coast and inland but are not commonly seen in California, Utah or Nevada. They do not migrate but congregate together (yard up) during winter and feed in a part of their existing territory.
The Mule Deer are found in the western part of North America from South eastern Alaska to Mexico and from the Pacific coast to Texas. They migrate from highland mountain meadows to southern or lower snow free forested valleys during winter.
The Blacktail deer are found on the Pacific coast from Alaska to northern California. There is both resident and migratory Blacktails. The migratory Blacktails move southwards during late autumn at the first sigh of snow or heavy sustained rain and the resident Blacktails seek cover their existing territory amongst woodlands during the winter months.
All Deer breed from autumn to early winter and the does give birth from late spring to early summer.
Period of Activity
Deer are most active from spring to autumn but can be troublesome during winter when the feed is scarce. In some regions urban landscapes become the major food source both in summer and winter.
Browsing deer will feed on almost any plant and is most commonly noticeable during spring feeding on the new growth or twigs and stems leaving a shredded appearance. Deer also rub their antlers against trees damaging bark and snapping off small branches, this action also incurs damage under hoof as plants, lawns and garden structures are trampled on.
Some plants are more palatable to deer but when a deer is hungry or during drought conditions there are no "Deer Proof" plants. There is a range of plants that have a bad taste and are not destroyed and are regarded as (deer resistant plants). Deer resistant plants are the plants that are attached to this file not the susceptible plants.
There are many cultural controls that have been tried to move browsing deer such as frightening them with strobe lights, pyrotechnics or tethered savage dogs. These actions are only temporary and may cause more trouble as the stampeding animals move off. Fencing and netting can be an effective method of discouraging hungry deer from gardens but may be expensive on a large scale and require maintenance. There are several types of fences which include conventional 2.2m (8 ft) deer-proof woven wire fences or single-wire electric fences and slanted deer fences. Plant selection can also be effective, by using less desirable plants (deer resistant plants) as an outer border to the more desirable plant species and thus discouraging the deer to enter the garden. Hedges and windrows of less desirable thorny plants can also be a deterrent to browsing deer.
There are two main types of repellents contact and area. Contact repellents are applied directly to the plants and deter deer with a bad taste or smell. They can be applied by rubbing or spraying on to the plants and commonly used in an egg mixture. The commercial products have proven to work better than home remedies which include soap or chilli mixtures and hanging bags of human hair.
Area repellents rely on an offensive odour and are placed around areas that are frequently visited.
Contact your local distributor for available types and application.
Various Rust Species
Generally this fungal problem involves many species causing a range of symptoms, but generally produces pustules that release reddish - brown spores. Most fungus is specific to its host and normally will not infect other plant species.
The upper leaf surface develops red, brown or yellow areas and the underside produces bright yellow to orange spores that correspond to the patches above. Infested leaves become brown in patches, fall prematurely and flower and fruit may also be infected. This overall, results in a loss of vigour and in small plants may lead to death.
Pelargonium x hortorum
Myrtle Rust (Puccinia psidii) This fungal disease infects plants in the Myrtaceae family and was only recently detected in 2010 and has since spread across eastern Australia from the Northern Territory to Queensland, NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. This rust attacks soft and actively growing foliage or shoots with varying symptoms. It normally starts as small purple spots on the leaves from which spores form in yellow pustules that fade to grey as the infection matures and can merge creating leaf distortion and death of the plant.
The life cycle starts when the powdery yellow spores are distributed by wind to other plants where they germinate and start to grow by piercing the plant cells to obtain nutrients. Germination occurs in dark moist positions with a temperature between 15° to 25°C and the new pustules can release spores in 10 to 12 days, (spores remain viable for 3-months). The spores spread rapidly by wind, water, insects or animals. They are also distributed by plant material, clothing, shoes and vehicles.
Needle Rust (Melampsora farlowii) infects the new leaves turning them to yellow and fall from the shoot giving the branch a scorched appearance. The fruiting bodies are found on the underside of the leaf and is waxy-red.
Rust in Poplar (Melampsora species). A fungal problem involving at least two species (Melampsora medusae) and (Melampsora larici-idaei).
The upper leaf surface becomes flecked with yellow to light green and the underside produces bright yellow orange spores that correspond to the patches above. Infested leaves become brown in patches, fall prematurely and shoots may die back as a result of not being hardened off to the elements. This overall, results in a loss of vigour and in small plants may lead to death.
The source of the fungus is from other infected plants or fallen leaves and is dispersed by wind.
Host plants include Lombardy Poplars particularly Populus nigra 'Italica' and cottonwoods.
White Rust (Albugo candida) forms snow white pustules that contain colourless spores that turn yellow then brown and are found on the underside of leaves.
White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR) is caused by the fungus (Cronartium ribicola). It is a obligate parasite requiring a living host to survive. The life cycle requires two host species with part of it life on the Pinus species and the other part on Ribes species. First cankers or sores appear on the Pinus species realising spores that land on the Ribes species infecting it. The infection produces a different type of spore that land on the needles and growing branches of the Pinus species and eventually forming cankers. The spores are spread by wind and prefer cool moist conditions. Symptoms include brown spots on the needles and the appearance of dead branches in the crown. Cankers will also appear on the trunk and it tends to attack young trees. Control methods include removal of Ribus species in the affected areas and breading naturally resistant Pinus species.
The Rust (Endophyllum sempervivi) affects Sempervivum species by infecting the young leaves and eventually the crown. The mycelium then travels to the roots and extends into any off shots. Leaves that are infected turn yellowish, grow longer and are thin. Persistent infection may kill the plant.
Source and Dispersal
The source of the fungus is from other infected plants or fallen leaves that contain the fruiting bodies and is dispersed by wind.
Generally rust is more prevalent during summer, preferring warm humid conditions and particularly when the leaves are damp.
A wide range of ornamental annuals, perennials, ferns, trees, shrubs including, Hibiscus species that are infected by Kuehneola malvicola predominantly in southern USA.
Abies species are infected by many types of rust including (Milesia fructuosa) and (Uredinopsis mirabilis).
Abutilon, Phymosia and Alcea species are infected by the rust (Puccinia heterospora).
Alnus species are occasionally infected with Leaf Rust (Melampsoridium hiratsukanum) which forms yellowish pustules on the leaves that develop turning the leaf brown.
Amelanchler species and Calocedrus decurrens are infected by several rust species including (Gymnosporangium libocedri).
Antirrhinum majus (Snapdragon) is infected by the rust (Puccinia antirrhini). This fungal problem that infects the epidermal layer on the leaf underside, forming pale green areas that are raised and split open revealing reddish brown spores that have a dusty appearance.
As the infestation grows, concentric rings of spore pustules appear around the original infection. The corresponding position on the upper leafs surface turns yellow eventually causing the leaf to wilt and die. The infestation is not restricted to the leaves; all above ground parts of the plant are susceptible and infected plants transmit the fungus dispersing it by wind.
Infected plants should be removed and destroyed.
Anemone and Prunus species are infected by the rust (Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae) that stimulates abnormal growth in the plant during spring.
Aquilegia, Anemone, Delphinium and Clematis species are infected by the Rust (Puccinia rubigo-vera var. agropyri).
Arctostaphylos manzanita is infected by the rust (Pucciniastrum sparsum) occurring in coastal regions but is not normally detrimental to the plant.
Artemisia species are infected by the rust (Uromyces ari-triphylli) which is a systemic disease that is transmitted through seeds. It causes the leaves to turn yellow then die and can infect all parts of the plant except the roots.
Bambusa species are infected by the rust (Dasturella divina) which forms elongated brownish strips on the leaves.
Berberis species may be infected by the Rust (Puccinia graminis) that forms orange spotting on the leaves. It certain regions plants infected with this rust must be removed and destroyed to avoid infecting neighbouring agriculture crops.
Betula species may be infected by Leaf Rust (Melampsoridium betulinum) that forms reddish-yellow spots on the leaves and heavy infestation can defoliate the tree. The host tree changes to Pseudolarix species during the sexual stage and causes blistering of the leaves.
Calendula species may be infected by the Rust (Puccinia flaveriae).
Callistephus and Solidago species may be infected by the Rust (Coleosporium solidaginis) which forms bright yellow spots particularly on new foliage or young plants.
Canna species may be infected by the rust (Puccinia Thaliae).
Centaurea species are infected by the rust (Puccinia cyani) and (Puccinia irrequisita) which can cover the stems and leaves.
Cleome species are infected by the rust (Puccinia aristidae) but rarely requires control.
Dianthus species are infected by the rust (Uromyces dianthi) which forms powdery brown spots that appear on both sides of the leaves. The leaves curl and die and the plant becomes stunted. This is a common problem that occurs when grown in a protected enclosure (hot house).
Ficus species are infected by the rust (Cerotelium fici) which forms small brown spots, and causes the leaves to turn yellow then fall prematurely.
Fuchsia species are infected with (Pucciniastrum epilobii). This fungus caused purplish red blotches on the upper leaf surface, that become dry in the middle and result in a brown patch with purple edges. On the underside of the leaf, corresponding to the patches, yellow orange spores form. Heavily infected leaves become yellow and drop prematurely. This leads to a loss of vigour in the plant and infected plants transmit the fungus.
Certain cultivars are more susceptible than others, particularly 'Orange Drops' and 'Novella'.
Hydrangea species is infected by (Pucciniastrum hydrangeae) causing yellowish brown pustules to appear on both sides of the leaf. The leaf becomes dry and brittle.
Iris and Dietes species are very susceptible to the rust (Puccinia iridis). Leaves form rusty red powdery spots that enlarge. They are appear on both sides of the leaves causing the surrounding area to turn pale yellow then brown and the black spores appear soon after, overwintering on dead infected leaves. Plants may be heavily infected but normally survive attack.
Larix species are infected by several Needle Rusts including (Melampsora paradoxa), (Melampsora medusae) and (Melampsoridium betulinum). The fungi attacks the needles predominantly towards the branch tips turning them yellow and eventually killing them . The underside of the leaf develops pale yellow fruiting bodies.
Lupinus species are infected by three species of rust including (Puccinia andropogonis var onobrychidis).
Malus andChaenomeles species may be infected by the rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae) or (Gymnosporangium clavipes) which forms brown or bright orange spots on the leaves or twigs and can defoliate the tree. Juniperus virginiana and Mespilus germanica may also be infected by rust.
Mathiola and Arabis species are infected by White Rust.
Pinus species are infects by the Comandra Blister-rust (Cronartium comandre).
Plumeria species are susceptible to the rust (Coleosporium plumeriae). Leaves and flowers may be infected with the underside forming bright yellow pustules and causes premature leaf or flower drop.
Populus nigra 'Italica' is infected by the rust (Melampsora species) which forms pustules to form on the leaves turning them brown and causing premature leaf drop.
Rhododendron and Tsuga species are infected by the rust (Pucciniastrum vaccinii) and is commonly found in nursery stock, spreading rapidly. Tsuga species are also infected by Needle Rust.
Ribes species are infected by the rust (Cronartium ribicola). This leaf rust appears on the underside of the leaves (preferably older leaves) forming dusty brown pustules and is a serious problem. This rust only appears when White Pine (Pinus strobes) grows near where the alternate stage of the fungus occurs.
Rudbeckia species are infected by several species of rust including (Puccinia dioicae) and (Uromyces rudbeckiae).
Salix species are infected by four types of (Melampsora species).
Senecio, Bellis and Calendula species are infected by the rust (Puccinia lagenophora) which forms blister-like pustules that release brown spores.
Sorbus aucuparia is affected by several rust from the (Gymnosporangium species) causing circular yellow spots, that appear on the leaves during summer and develop into orange cup-shaped fruiting bodies.
Trillium species are infected by the rust (Uromyces halstedii) that damages the leaf surface.
Festuca arundinacea Rust
Turf Grass are susceptible to rust (Puccinia species) and (Uromyces species), causing yellow flecks to appear on the stems and leaves. These markings enlarge before the pustules form and in severs cases the lawn has a yellow, red or brown appearance.
The infection appears from spring to summer under humid low light conditions and turf that is under stress or with excessive nitrogen in the soil is more susceptible. Many species may be infected including Lolium perenne (Perennial Ryegrass) and Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass).
Rust on Perennial Ryegrass
Viburnum species are mildly affected by two types of rust (Coleosporium viburni) and (Puccinia linkii).
Viola species are infected by the rust (Puccinia violae) which forms green spots on the underside of the leaves. It is not commonly seen on cultivated plants.
Cut off and destroy any infected branches, fallen leaves and remove heavily infected plants. Improve the culture by, pruning to improve air circulation, allow space between plants and avoid over crowding. Avoid planting susceptible species. Plants that are infected with a systemic form should be removed and destroyed
Not possible to spray large trees but young plants may be treated with a protectant fungicide such as wettable sulphur. In a domestic garden small plants such as Fuchsia species may be sprayed with a protectant chemicals as symptoms appear, aided by the removal of existing infected leaves. Under commercial conditions stock may be sprayed with a fungicide such as oxycarboxin.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Various Fungal species
A fungus is a plant that lacks chlorophyll and conductive tissue. Generally they are made up of branched threads called 'hyphae' and collectively form a vegetative body called 'mycelium'. The fungus is small but the fruiting bodies can become very large up to 600mm across such as bracket fungi or mushrooms. Common fungi are mould and mildews. problem that attacks the roots causing them to rot.
Fungus can reproduce many ways but primarily it is asexually, simular to cuttings of a plant and often occurs with minute portions of the mycelium (spores) separating. The spores can be arranged in a structure such as a sporangia or pycnidia or develop without an enclosed structure called a "conidia". Either way the fungus propagates very rapidly. Sexually reproduction occurs when two nuclei unite and form sexual fruiting bodies (zygospore).
Strelitzia reginae flower
Fungus attacks all the above or below ground level parts of the plant living within the tissue of the plant and are very small and not normally detected until the fruiting body appears. However parasitic types such as powdery mildew or rust are visible on the outer surface of the plant.
Fungi hyphae may be divided by cross walls and known as "septate" while others with no cross walls are known as "nonseptate". These are the fungi responsible for cell leakage as in rot.
Back Mold (Chalariopsis thielavioides) affects understocks of grafted Rosa species by inhibiting the development of callus. It is whitish-grey maturing to black and can be found in the pith of the rose stem.
Black Root Rot (Chalara elegans).This recently introduced fungal disease in Australia (1993) affect plants by blackening the root systems and turning leaves yellow or purple. It is difficult to identify specifically as other pathogenic root diseases and nutritional deficiencies have simular characteristics.
The asexual spores are dispersed by wind or water. It is also transmitted on insects and in contaminated growing media or plants preferring humid moist conditions.
This fungus affects a wide range of ornamental plants including; annuals, perennials and shrubs. Examples are Begonia, Boronia, Camellia, Cyclamen, Fuchsia, Gerbera, Grevillea, Impatiens, Pansy, Petunia, Rosa species and Snapdragon.
Black Stem Rot (Pythium splendens) normally is a rot that occurs in cuttings turning the stem progressively black and shrunken. The leaves fall and the plant becomes stunted, eventually dieing.
Bleeding Necrosis (Botyosphaeria ribis) attacks and kills the inner wood causing the bark to split open and bleed sap giving it an oily appearance.
Blight (Endothia parasitica) is a serious pest of Castanea species, entering the twigs and small branches, and then progressively travelling throughout the tree killing it. It may form cankers on the base of the trunk or in the dead branches above with the amber coloured fruiting bodies pushing there way through the bark.
Copper Web ((Rhizoctonia crocorum). This fungal disease appears in defined patches causing the corms in the centre to become a black powdery mass. Corms on the outer ring of the patch that are partially infected forming a felty mass of violet threads on the corm scales. These threads extend into the soil and large sclerotia forms in the soil and on the corms. Healthy corms become infected from contaminated soil that contains mycelium and sclerotia.
Dry Rot (Phyllosticta concave) forms small circular spots that increase to a diameter of 30mm, and then becomes sunken as the cells collapse. The infected area develops minute black fruiting bodies.
Dutch Elm Disease (Ceratocystis ulmi) is a serious fungal problem of Ulmus species that initially causes yellowing then wilting of the leaves that turn brown and die. This may be seen on certain branches of the tree and on inspection under the bark the sapwood reveals brown streaks. A cross section of the affected branch displays round spots that are dark brown. This infection normally spreads quickly throughout, killing the tree in one to two seasons.
Dieback in Camellia (Glomerella cingulate) is a pathogenic fungus that infecting existing wounds such as leaf scars or mechanical damage, forming a sunken area (canker) that spreads around the stem causing die back. The affected plant has new shoots that are brown-black and the tips curl, forming a 'Shepard's Crook' appearance. The leaves also die but are persistent on the plant and the spores are found in soil or on other infected plants.
Curvularia Leaf Spot (Curvularia species) in Turf Grass. This is normally a secondary weak fungal infection that forms spots on the leaves that lengthens turning the leaves greyish. The leaf shrivels then dies and infected areas appear as weak patches in the turf. Preventive measures include minimising leaf wetness and excessive use of nitrogen fertiliser.
Fairy Rings Blue Couch
Fairy Rings are a fungal problem in Turf Grass and is caused by several species including (Lycoperdon species), (Marasmius species) and (Tricholoma species). Rings appear in the turf as fruiting bodies or dead grass and as lush green foliage. The mycelia expand radially in the turf feeding on soil nutrients and organic matter with water present.
Under severs conditions the mycelia consume all available nutrients resulting in the death of the turf. Lush turf can result from a less developed infection, where the decomposing hyphal releases nitrogen. This available nitrogen may be beneficial to the turf but some forms of nitrogen are detrimental.
Leaf Blister (Taphrina coerulescens) appears as yellowish circular raised areas on the upper side and depressions on the underside of leaves, up to 15mm across. As the fungus spreads the leaf dies but remains attached to the tree and this infection is commonly found on Quercus species..
Leaf Blotch (Guignardia aesculi) forms small or large water soaked spots that are reddish with a bright yellow margin and form black fruiting bodies in the centre. The affected leaf and petiole have a scorched appearance before falling, found on Aesculus species
Grevillea robusta Leaf Scorch
Leaf Scorch (Verrucispora proteacearum) is a fungal disease that infects leaves causing large parts of the leaf to turn grey-brown, giving the appearance that it has been singed by fire. Black fruiting bodies appear on the affected areas and the leaf soon withers then dies. New, mature leaves are affected during very wet periods towards the end of the branches and Grevillea and Hakea species are susceptible.
Melting Out (Helminthosporium vegans) forms bluish black spots with straw coloured centres on the leaves and may be found on the sheath, encircling it causing Foot Rot. It infects grasses particularly Poa pratensis. There is another fungus that is simular Helminthosporium Blight (Helminthosporium dictyoides) that infects Poa, Festuca and Agrostis species.
Pad decay (Aspergilus alliaceus) infects Cereus and Opuntia species and occurs at during periods of high temperature. The yellow spores at the epidermal layer through wounds and germinate on mass causing the area to become soft and spongy. An anthracnose called Shot Hole is a similar forming brownish spots the turn grey, and then black destroying pads. Control methods include physically removing damaged pads and allowing the Sun to heal wounds.
Potato Gangrene (Phoma foveate) is a soil borne fungus that infects the roots during harvest primarly through wounds and develops during storage. The potatoes rot from the inside forming rounded depressions on the surface and have a strong odour of rotten fish.
Root Rot Fungi (Phymatotrichum omnivorum) and (Pellicularia filamentosa) cause the roots to rot and the plant suddenly wilts then dies.
Root Rot (Pythium debaryanum) forms water soaked dark brown streaks that affect all parts of the plant causing wilting then dieing. It infects Ranunculus species, it also infects cactus species by forming brown spotting and wilting that appears at the base of the plant then extends towards the top. It quickly spreads from plant to plant in collections and is controlled by avoiding over watering, excessive humidity and are using a sterilised soil when potting up.
This fungus also is responsible for damping off of seedlings in a glasshouse environment.
Spring Dead Spot
Spring Dead Spot (Leptosphaeri species) is a fungal disease that infects Couch Grass. It first appears during autumn as pale bleaches areas up to 500mm (20in) wide and persists throughout winter. In spring the affected areas do not recover or recover slowly and on inspection the roots or rhizomes are rotted. Runners from the surrounding healthy turf will help with recovery and all signs of the problem disappear by mid summer.
Cactus species Pachypodium species
Stem Rot (Helminthosporium cactivorum) forms well defined yellow lesions that mature into soft dark brown rot. It commonly infects Cactus species entering through the stomates or wounds. Heavily infected plants collapse and die.
Stem Rot or Basal Rot (Pellicularia rolfsii) is a soil borne fungus that infects the stem root junction and extends into the leaves. In orchids the leaves become discoloured, dry and detach from the base which is covered in a fungal growth that produces sclerotia. The sclerotia is whitish to yellow then becoming dark brown and can be viable for up to four years.
White Mold (Ramularia desta f. odorati) occurs on both sides of the leaf and looks simular to powdery mildew but forms faint dull, reddish brown elongated spots on the leaf that may be depressed or along the margin where they have a watery appearance. Tufts of hyphae develop in the stomates.
Wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum) causes leaves to curl then turn brown and the sap wood may also turn brown or black. Heavy infection may kill a tree within two seasons and is found on Quercus species and other ornamental trees.
Witches Broom may be a fungal problem that causes a proliferation of small axillary shoots to appear at the end of the branches. Little is known about this problem, though it affects a wide range of plants including Eucalyptus, Leptospermum and Pinus species.
Source and Dispersal
Fungus is found in the soil or on other infected plants and after releasing the spores, they are dispersed by wind or are transmitted in infected stock, insects and with splashing water.
Wilt is transmitted by infected root stocks, several species of insect and contaminated tools.
Dutch Elm Disease is transmitted by bark beetles such as (Scolytus multistriatus) and (Hylurgopinus rufipes). These beetles deposit eggs in the sapwood where the lava tunnel and pupate. The emerging beetles tunnel the bark and carry the fungus to fresh feeding sites on the tree. Infected beetles may also be transported to fresh sites in waist material.
Prefers cool moist conditions with temperatures from 10º to 25ºC and is more common from autumn to spring when it is wet.
A wide range of plants and all parts can be infected by various fungal diseases. Bleeding Necrosis is found in Liquidambar species and Stem Rot or Dry Rot infects Cactus species such as Opuntia and Pelargonium.
Abies species are infected by several fungi that cause Leaf Cast which turn the needles yellow to brown then fall prematurely.
Abutilon species are infected by the Stem Rot (Macrophomina phaseolin) affecting the lower stems and is not commonly seen.
Achillea, Cuphea, Leucanthemum, Euphorbia species are infected by the Stem Rot (Pellicularia filamentosa) which enters through the roots and rots the base of the stem.
Alternanthera species are infected by the Leaf Blight (Phyllosticta amaranthi) which forms small brown spots on the leaves causing them to curl and die.
Aloe, Astrophytum, Copiapoa, Echinocactus, Espostoa, Ferocactus, Gymnocalycium, Kalanchoe and Schlumbergerera species are infected by Bipolaris Stem Rot (Bipolaris cactivora). This infection affects many cacti species causing rot in the stems with a blackish appearance.
Amelanchler is affected by the Witches Broom (Apiosporina collinsii).
Antirrhinum species are infected by the Blight (Phyllosticta antirrhini) that forms light brown spots on the upper-side of the leaf and on the stem. As the spots enlarge they turn greyish with black fruiting bodies in the centre, then become brown and killing the affected areas.
Begonia species are infected by the Stem Rot (Pythium ultimum) turning stems black then becoming soft and causing the plant to collapse. This is the same fungus that causes Damping-off.
Betula species are affected by the Leaf Blister (Taphrina bacteriosperma) which curls the leaves and forms reddish blisters.
Chamaedorea and other cain-like species are infected with Gliocladium Stem Rot (Gliocladium vermoseni) which forms a dark basil stem rot generally on damaged plants and produces orange-pink spores. The mature leaves are first affected and eventually the stems or cains rot and die.
Crocus and Gladiolus species are infected by the Dry Rot (Stromatinia gladioli), which causes lesions on the corms and rots the leaf sheath.
Crocus, Iris, Tulipa, and Narcissus species are infected Copper Web ((Rhizoctonia crocorum).
Dianthus species are infected by Phialophora Wilt (Phialophora cinerescens) that causes the leaves to fade and plants to wilt. There is obvious vascular discoloration which is very dark. It is not found in Australia.
Erythrina x sykesii may be infected by the Root Rot Fungi (Phymatotrichum omnivorum).
Fern species are infected by Tip Blight (Phyllosticta pteridis). This blight produces ash-grey spots with purple brown margins and the fruiting bodies appear as black pimple like spots. It is transmitted by air or moisture and in infected fronds become brown and die. Control methods include sprang fungicide on leaves or reducing humidity and avoid wetting the fronds.
Forsythia species are infected by Stem Gall (Phomopsis species). It forms rounded growths along the stems causing them to die and look unsightly.
Gladiolus species are infected by Penicillium Rot of Corms (Penicillium gladioli). This disease forms deeply sunken reddish brown areas that become corky and produce a greenish fungal growth.
Hedera species are susceptible to several Fungal Leaf Spots including (Glomerella cingulate), (Phyllosticta concentrica) and (Ramularia hedericola). All of which cause yellowish spots that develop into dry brown blotches that kill the leaf.
Larix species are susceptible to Leaf Cast (Hypodermella laricis). This fungus attacks the needles and spur shoots turning them yellow at first then brown after which small black fruiting bodies appear on the leaves during winter.
There are several other fungi including (Cladosporium species) and (Lophodermium laricis) cause leaf blight or leaf casts.
Orchids such as Cattleya, Cymbidium, Cypripedium, Dendrobium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis and Zygopetalum species are infected by Phomopsis Rot (Phomopsis species). This fungal problem forms a firm brown rot that appears on the leaves, pseudobulbs and rhizomes. The affected areas have yellow margins and the centre is covered in tiny black specks (fruiting bodies). Cattleya species are particularly susceptible. These plants are also infected by Psudobulb Rot (Mycolleptodiscus coloratus implicated). Dark spots appear on the pseudobulbs eventually causing extensive rot and killing the bulb.
Palms are infected by the fungus Butt Rot (Ganoderma sulcatum). The fungus entered the lower trunk normally as a result of mechanical damage (lawn mower). Symptoms include stunting of new growth and yellowing of the lower leaves. Fruiting bodies become evident at the base of the trunk. There is no effective control method and replanting in infected soil should be avoided.
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) is susceptible to Kikuyu Yellows (Verrucalvus flavofaciens), thisis a water mould that infects the roots and causes them to rot. The infection extends up the stem and onto the leaves with yellow discolouration and can be limited to a small or large area up to 1m (3ft) wide.
It is found in warm temperate to sub tropical regions and dispersed in infected soil or plant material. There is no chemical control, nitrogen fertiliser masks the symptoms and complete fertiliser encourages stronger roots to fight the disease.
Pittosporum, Antirrhinum, Aquilegia, Echinops and Orchid species are infected by the Stem Rot or Basal Rot (Pellicularia rolfsii) commonly in the northern hemisphere and preferring humid glasshouse conditions.
Solidago species are infected by the fungal Scab (Elsinoe solidaginis) which covers the leaves and stunts the growth of the plant. Young plants may be killed.
Trillium species are infected by the stem rot (Pellicularia rolfsii) and ( Ciborinia trillii). This normally occurs in wet soils and is detrimental to the plants life.
Tsuga species are infected by Sapwood Rot or Butt Rot (Ganoderma lucidum) and (Coniophora puteana), which attacks the sapwood close to the bark, towards the base of the tree. Commonly killing the host.
Tulipa species are affected Blue Mold (Penicillium species) and the fungus (Rhizopus stolonifer) causing rot in the bulbs.
Vinca species are infected by the soil born Root Rot (Pellicularia filamentosa) which rots the stems and roots.
Viola species may be infected with the Scab (Sphaceloma violae) which attacks all parts of the plant including the seed capsule forming yellowish spots that turn brown and in leaves fall out. Stems and petioles can be girdled killing the upper part.
Viola species are also infected with the Stem Rot (Myrothecium roridum) which attacks the stems at ground level causing them to become dry and brittle. The leaves show symptoms by turning purplish-black and this fungus also infects Alcea and Antirrhinum species.
Generally remove and destroy any infected plants or plant parts, when replanting, avoid using susceptible species for 3 years. When growing crops space the plants to reduce the humidity and airflow and cultivate the soil to increase the drainage. Remove weed growth from around the susceptible plants.
Avoid over watering the surrounding soil which encourages fungal development. In the case of trees remove any infected branches and heavily infected trees should be cut down and removed. This infected material should be disposed or burnt. Damaged trees should have the wounds dressed and sealed as a preventative measure particularly for Dieback in Camellia.
Deter Potato Gangrene by planting clean stock and be careful not to damage the crop when weeding. When harvesting the tubers choose a dryer period and be careful not to damage them.
Fairy Rings in Turf are difficult to control and may appear or disappear sporadically. Cultural practice such as minimal thatch build-up, regular aeration and a reduction of organic matter spread on the turf will reduce infection.
No suitable fungicides available, though drenching or spraying the soil with the fungicide dichloran helps control soil born fungi.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Average Lowest Temperature : -1º C 30º F
USDA : 9-12
This USDA hardiness zone chart can be used to to indicate a plant’s ability to withstand average minimum temperatures. However, other factors such as soil type, moisture, drainage, humidity and exposure to sun and wind will also have a direct effect on your plant’s survival. Use this chart only as a guide, always keep the other factors in mind when deciding where, when and what to plant.
Plant's individual USDA zone can be found in the Plant Overview...
Warm to Sub-tropical
This overlaping zone has ample rain with high summer temeperatures and high humidity. Winters are mild. Pockets of sub-tropical climates exist within coastal warm temperate zones.
Frosts and droughts rarely occur along the coast.
Tropical and warm temperate native and exotic plants grow well.
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